Welcome back to HLC! Another Tuesday, and, as always, here I am with a new Fun Etymology!
Today’s word is abacus!
But first, what in the world is an abacus?
Well, an abacus is a simple device for calculating something. It consists of a frame with wires attached to each side and several beads that you can slide back and forth. You’ll probably recognise it when you see it, so here it is:
However, originally, it referred to a type of drawing board, which was covered with dust or sand. On this board, mathematical equations or calculations could be traced and then erased. The word abacus didn’t actually refer to the kind of beaded frame you see above until around the seventeenth century (or potentially even later) in English.
But what about the word itself? Where does that come from?
As we’ve been on this trip for a while now, I am guessing that you can probably tell that abacus is not likely to be a native English word.
And, if so, you’re absolutely right!
The word abacus came to English around the late fourteenth century (then referring to the sand/dust board mentioned above). It was derived directly from the Latin word abacus. This, in turn, came from Greek abax (which in genitive form became abakos).
The Greek word, though, is of uncertain etymology. It might be derived from a Semitic source, such as Phoenician or Hebrew abaq, which literally means dust.
This might be derived from the Semitic root a-b-q, meaning to fly off. However, its origin has been questioned by some etymologists.
So, in the end, as many times before, we know it came to English from Latin and to Latin from Greek and there… the trail turns rather chilly.
But that is the life of a historical linguist! Join me on Thursday when we take a closer look at Old English syntax (or, if you prefer, next week when we look at the origins of the word abaft)!
See you then!