It’s a new month! Time for yet another of our monumental people in the linguistic field! Today, I want to introduce you to Karl Luick!
Luick was born on the 27th of January, 1865, in a town called Floridsdorf, which is now the 21st district of Vienna. Although later moving around quite a bit, he got all of his degrees from the University of Vienna, specialising in English.
Luick was, and remains to this day, a monumental name in the field of historical phonology. His Historische Grammatik der englischen Sprache was published in two volumes and remains, in its 1964 edition, a key text in historical phonology.
Another key text of Luick’s is the earlier publication Untersuchungen zur englischen Lautgeschichte, which was published as early as 1896. In this publication, Luick focused on the Great Vowel Shift and developed a tentative hypothesis, now called the push chain hypothesis.
Some background first.
Middle English /u:/ diphthongised, eventually becoming modern /au/, in large portions of England. However, it had not done so in Scotland and parts of the north.
Noticing this, Luick suggested that there must be some kind of causal relationship between the non-diphthongisation of /u:/ in those northern areas and the fronting of /o:/, which had previously occurred in the northern dialects.
As a result, the push-chain hypothesis suggests that lower vowels basically raised and push the higher vowels out of their place – thus forcing the highest vowels to lower and diphthongise. 1 As the northern dialects no longer had /o:/ in its original place, it couldn’t raise and push /u:/ to diphthongise!
Regardless of whether you believe in the push or drag chain (or have no preference), I believe we can all agree with Bauer, who once stated that:
Luick always had fresh insights, some of them of almost revolutionary potential[.]Gero Bauer (1985: 10)
and as a brief acknowledgment of the amazing work done by this linguist, he is the HLC’s Patron Saint of February 2020!
Want to learn more about Luick? Check out my references and footnotes below!
As my German, unfortunately, is not good enough to read Luick’s own works (don’t worry – I’m working on it!), I have relied on:
Dieter Kastovsky/Gero Bauer. (eds.). 1985. Luick revisited. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag Tübingen (particularly the introduction for this post).
If your German is better than mine though, you can find volume 1 of Historische Grammatik der englischen Sprache here and volume 2 here. You can also find Untersuchungen zur englischen Lautgeschichte here.
I’ve also had a look at Wikipedia’s page on Karl Luick.
- Yeah, okay, that’s a very summed up explanation but check out chapter 3 “Phonology and morphology” by Roger Lass in The Cambridge History of the English language for a longer explanation.
- According to Bauer (1985: 10), the idea does appear in Historische Grammatik der englischen Sprache, but is largely unchanged from that found in Untersuchungen zur englischen Lautgeschichte.
- An idea put forth by Jespersen in 1909. Jespersen, unlike Luick, argued that it was in fact the high vowels that diphthongised first, thus living an empty space in the vowel scheme, which in turn forced the lower vowels to move to fill the space. Again, check out Lass for a longer, more detailed explanation.